Aug 032010
 
ResearchBlogging.orgMost people never learn about an actual scientific controversy. Almost every “controversy” that bubbles into the public eye is manufactured, often reflecting social or ethical differences rather than genuine disagreements between experts about how different models fit to reality. Actual scientific controversies tend to be highly technical, and often concern points that lay people find to be esoteric. That doesn’t mean that the issues involved aren’t important, or that they’re even difficult to understand. One controversy that has unfolded over the past few years and now may be over relates to a seemingly simple question. Where do adamantane drugs bind to the influenza A M2 channel?

Previously, on As the Channel Twists

Bill DeGrado and James Chou, whose
competing structures began the controversy

The M2 proton channel plays an essential role in the life cycle of the influenza virus. The activity of the channel could be blocked, at least in influenza A, by drugs called adamantanes, including amantadine and rimantadine. Unfortunately, these antiviral drugs have been fading in efficacy due to the spread of an S31N mutation that interferes with their binding. On January 31, 2008, two articles appeared in the scientific journal Nature showing adamantanes bound to the M2 channel. Unfortunately, the structures had different answers about where the drug was bound. The X-ray crystal structure from Bill DeGrado’s group at the University of Pennsylvania placed amantadine in the center of the channel’s pore, suggesting a simple pore-blocking model (PBM) for inhibition. The NMR structure from James Chou’s group at Harvard University located rimantadine on the outside of the channel, ultimately giving rise to an allosteric, dynamic quenching model (DQM) of adamantane activity.

As outlined in my previous post on the M2 channel, there was conflicting functional evidence as to which site was actually relevant in vivo, and reasons to doubt the conclusions from both structures. Since that time, several papers have been published that substantially clarify the issue. At this point, the evidence strongly supports the PBM as an explanation of adamantane activity in vivo.

Sure adamantanes bind there, but does it matter?

The direct observation of NOEs, even weak ones, between the adamantane and the protein proved that the drugs were binding at the DQM site, but there were some significant areas of concern with this finding. The greatest worry was due to the extremely high concentration of ligand used in the NMR experiment. This opened up the possibility that the DQM site was a low-affinity site that would not see binding under normal circumstances. Because both models had explanations for the efficacy of the S31N mutation, the only way to address the question would be to make mutations that would abolish binding at the DQM site and see if adamantanes were still effective. Because aspartate 44 was proposed to form a hydrogen bond to rimantadine, it was thought that a D44A mutation would eliminate binding, and if DQM was true, adamantane activity. This prediction was borne out by an experiment performed in liposomes by the Chou lab (6), but Robert Lamb’s group from Northwestern University was not able to replicate this result in X. laevis oocytes (4).

Robert Lamb has studied the
M2 channel since the 80s.

What Lamb’s group did do was test different parts of the influenza A channel for adamantane sensitivity by fusing them to the adamantane-insensitive influenza B channel. These A/B M2 chimeras should in principle have adamantane susceptibility if the legitimate binding site got imported from A to B. Their first results in this experiment were somewhat inconclusive. Adding the N-terminal portion of the A channel to the C-terminal portion of the B channel (essentially sticking the PBM site into B M2) created a chimera that was somewhat sensitive to amantadine treatment, but the effect was nowhere near what occurred for WT A channel (4). Subsequently, Lamb’s group expanded these experiments to add a little bit more of the N-terminal sequence to the chimera, which then almost perfectly matched the WT A channel’s susceptibility. Notably, when they made the opposite chimera that incorporated the DQM site from A into the B channel, only a very slight inhibitory activity was observed upon addition of amantadine (5). While the conclusions that can be drawn from the chimeras are limited by their particularly odd provenance, the fact that transplanting the PBM site from one channel to another confers adamantane susceptibility suggests that this is the functional binding site.

An upcoming paper in PNAS clarifies the picture somewhat using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) (7). This technique detects the binding of a ligand as a change in physical force exerted by a protein tethered to the surface of a gold chip. In this case, the tethering was mediated by a DMPC liposome. This was a tricky experiment because adamantanes like the greasy portions of lipid bilayers, so they can bind to the liposome itself. Rosenberg and Casarotto, however, were able to control for this effect. Their SPR experiments detect two distinct adamantane binding sites on M2 with vastly different affinities. Rimantadine binding at the high-affinity site could be abrogated by S31N and V27A mutations, but not a D44A mutation. At the low-affinity site, rimantadine binding could be knocked out by a D44A mutation or an S31N mutation, but not a V27A mutation. This result indicates that both binding sites are functional (and, incidentally, that the S31N mutation does indeed exert an allosteric effect on the DQM site). However, the authors note that the adamantane concentrations used in actual treatment are too low to significantly populate the low-affinity site, given the dissociation constants they calculated. This argues that the DQM site is irrelevant in vivo.

Amantadine caught in the pore

Mei Hong has studied M2
extensively by NMR

One of the problems with the PBM was that the crystal structure that supported it was unsatisfactory in a variety of ways. The structure was made using a construct that consisted of only the transmembrane segment of the protein. This construct could not be reconstituted in micelles, and functional experiments showed that it was not very similar to the WT in terms of its activity. In addition, the extra electron density in the pore could not be unambiguously assigned as amantadine. In a paper from February of this year, the DeGrado group collaborated with Mei Hong’s group at Iowa State University to produce a structure of amantadine bound to M2 using solid-state NMR (2). An important advantage of this approach is that one can take spectra of proteins embedded in a membrane without penalty, because there is no requirement for the protein to tumble freely. While there are some trade-offs in terms of resolution and the kinds of data that can be obtained, biomolecular solid-state NMR can help us answer some very tricky questions.

Amantadine (yellow) in the
pore binding site.

The approach proved to be especially fruitful here. Cady et al. used a technique that allowed them to determine whether the amantadine was near a particular residue, by labeling residues with 13C and the amantadine with 2H. If a 13C nucleus is coupled to a 2H nucleus by a dipolar interaction, a pulse that dephases the 2H nucleus will affect the 13C nucleus in a distance-dependent manner. When Cady et al. made samples at a ratio of one amantadine per channel, they found that the signal from S31 was significantly broadened, but that from D44 was not, proving that the amantadine is close to S31 under these conditions. The D44 signal was affected at higher amantadine concentrations, but never to the same degree as the S31 signal. Other residues at the PBM site were also affected by the presence of amantadine. Using an alternative version of the REDOR experiment, Cady et al. were able to generate distance constraints and, in combination with other data, generate a structure for the channel with amantadine bound (see their figure at right) (2). Note the residues that are close to the amantadine in this structure: V27, S31, G34, and H37. This will be important in a minute.

The Cady et al. paper has several advantages over the DeGrado group’s original crystal structure. The first, and most important, is that the protein was reconstituted in DMPC vesicles rather than OGP bilayers. The lipids themselves, and the vesicle structure, more closely mimic the likely environment in vivo than the crystal conditions, and they are also more biologically-relevant than the DHPC micelles employed in Chou’s original determination. In addition, the pH of 7.5 matches the experimental conditions used by Chou and allows for a direct comparison of results under conditions where the channel’s conformation should in principle be the same. The REDOR results provide unambiguous evidence that amantadine binds preferentially in the pocket for this construct. Their observation that amantadine has approximately 100-fold higher affinity for the PBM site, but can also bind the DQM site, agrees nicely with the functional data, especially the SPR results.

Support for an allosteric mechanism?

Bob Griffin,
SSNMR master

However, Cady et al. still used the truncated construct that possesses significantly altered activity relative to WT, which brings us to an upcoming paper in JACS by Andreas et al. (1). Chou’s group collaborated with Robert Griffin’s group at MIT to map the chemical shifts of a somewhat larger construct of M2 that is known to have relatively normal activity. The longer construct is also known to form a fairly stable tetramer, and this may have improved its spectral properties. The construct was inserted into membrane bilayers that were lyophilized for the NMR experiment, with and without rimantidine present. The chemical shifts of 15N and 13C nuclei of residues in the transmembrane helices were compared between these two states as a way of localizing the adamantane binding site. As Andreas et al. show in their figure 2 (recapitulated below in a slightly altered fashion), the chemical shift changes in response to the binding event are quite widespread. The authors argue that this observation favors an allosteric inhibition mechanism. That may well be true, in a sense, but unfortunately that does not mean that the observation favors DQM.

The binding of a ligand generally alters the chemical shifts of a protein by changing its structure, reshaping the arrangement of bond angles that dictates the electron distribution around the relevant nuclei. It is of course possible that a small change in the protein’s conformation at the binding site propagates into a large change elsewhere, but this is not typically observed. The most reasonable interpretation of chemical shift changes (Δδ) upon ligand binding is that the largest shifts observed are nearest to the ligand, while the smaller shifts are farther away. The original version of figure 2 presents the data in a fairly simple way, and does not distinguish very large changes from relatively small ones. So, I made a new version of the figure for you, where I’ve taken the additional step of scaling the color according to the magnitude of Δδ.

M2 channel showing Δδ
due to rimantidine binding

This adaptation of the Andreas et al. figure, shows the NMR micelle structure (PDB code: 2RLF) with purple rimantadine at the DQM binding site and the helices colored in blue according to the Δδ. This was done very roughly, by eyeballing the graphs to the left in figure 2, scaling the Δδ based on the nucleus measured, and adding it all up across all three nuclei. The more intense the blue, the larger the Δδ. It should be immediately apparent that the largest chemical shift changes are located a substantial distance from the DQM site (although there are some smaller changes near that site). What’s perhaps less immediately obvious is that the largest chemical shift changes belong to residues located in the pore. To make this point more clear, check out the figure below and to the left. This is the same structure, that I have now tilted so we are looking down the barrel of the channel. The side chains of the four residues with the largest chemical shift changes (V27, S31, G34, H37) are shown in light green for contrast (obviously there’s nothing for G34). Three of them are sticking into the pore in this model (G34′s Cα faces the pore); the fourth is S31. You might recall that the structure from Cady et al. (above) puts all four of these large Δδ residues right next to the ligand.

The largest chemical shift changes in response to rimantidine binding occur near the proposed PBM site and far from the DQM site, and the residues most affected are those facing the pore. Andreas et al. argue that this information is insufficient to positively localize the drug, due to the large chemical shift change at H37 Cα, but this doesn’t seem particularly convincing. The concentration of large chemical shift changes at the N-terminal end of the channel strongly argues for the ligand binding in this region. As for the significant Δδ at H37, the observations could quite possibly be due to ring-current effects from the repositioning of the adjacent tryptophan side chains (light red in the figure to the left). We know that binding of adamantanes has at least some effect on W41 thanks to Czabotar et al. (3), who measured adamantane binding by observing changes in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Of course, changes in fluorescence are a very general indicator of structural or dynamic change, but the previous finding supports the possibility of interpreting the H37 observations as side-chain effects rather than ligand proximity.

In contrast, there is no such explanation for the significant chemical shift changes at the N-terminal end of the channel, which has no aromatic residues. The significant Δδ in this region must be due to rearrangements of these residues themselves, rather than long-range effects or ring currents. Thus, the most plausible model explaining these data remains one in which adamantanes bind near V27 and S31, propagating some kind of structural change to W41, rather than the other way around. In this regard, I agree that the data from figure 2 establish that adamantane binding has an allosteric effect. These data, however, do not support the DQM Chou proposed previously.

Conclusions, Lessons

The DQM hit its high-water mark with the Pielak et al. PNAS paper back in 2009 (6), in which the model’s prediction that the D44A mutation would significantly alter adamantane sensitivity was borne out by experiments in liposomes. Since that time, however, the evidence has started to weigh mostly against it. The D44A results could not be replicated in X. laevis oocytes, and lovely chimera experiments in this system demonstrated that the N-terminal region of M2 was critical for adamantane sensitivity (4)(5). Live viruses remained sensitive to adamantanes even if they were reverse-engineered to have the D44A mutation. Rosenberg and Casarotto showed that the D44A mutation only affected binding at absurdly high rimantadine concentrations (7). Finally, the Cady et al. study provided unambiguous evidence for adamantane in the pore of the channel (2). In light of these findings, only a crystal-clear result in favor of the DQM could really save it.

Although their findings convincingly illustrate an allosteric effect from rimantidine binding, Andreas et al. do not provide that result. Even their own chemical shift data seem to support the PBM model. Of course direct dipolar couplings would provide a totally unambiguous answer as to the location of the rimantidine, but in light of our existing knowledge about the system, that experiment doesn’t seem necessary. At this point there is no serious reason to doubt that the physiological inhibition of M2 channel results from adamantane drugs binding to the pore.

The papers cited in this article represent decades of man-hours and significant amounts of money spent in resolving what might seem like an esoteric point. Given the enormous effort that went into resolving the  seemingly simple question, you might be tempted to ask what went wrong. The answer is, “nothing”. This is how the scientific process is supposed to work. Two groups came at the same problem in different ways and got different answers, which is hardly a surprise because no experiment is perfect. More experiments were carried out to determine which model best represented the physical reality. Eventually, the weight of the evidence strongly supported one model over the other. The best data we have right now really point to a single conclusion. The process succeeded, and nobody needed a superior court judge or a congressional hearing.

That doesn’t mean we can’t take some lessons from the experience. Most prominent among these is that we must have serious reservations about NMR structures derived from proteins bound to or inserted in micelles. What we know about the M2 channel tells us that adamantanes prefer to bind in the pore. That they did not do so (or at least, could not be detected doing so) in the micelle-based structure suggests that something about the micelle itself made that impossible. We know that the forces exerted on proteins by membrane curvature can be substantial, and the structure of a micelle is very unlike the structure of a cell membrane. Solution NMR in bicelles may yet prove to be a superior approach for some systems, but in this case it was solid-state NMR that provided the vital evidence. Solid-state has its own set of limitations, but it’s clear proper membrane context is absolutely vital to getting good answers about membrane protein structure and function.

Knowing the actual binding site of adamantanes may prove to be very important in aiding the design of alternative drugs that achieve the same inhibition of the channel. The papers from the DeGrado and Hong groups have already made several interesting recommendations in this regard. Even what has been learned about the remote site may not be fruitless. Though it is not the source of the physiological activity of adamantanes, several experiments have made it clear that there is some kind of allosteric interaction between S31 and the DQM site. It may be possible to attack M2 through this site with a specifically-designed high-affinity drug, even if adamantanes themselves don’t work this way.  If that proves to be the case, then this will be the best kind of scientific controversy: one where we learn something important from both sides.


References

(1) Andreas, L., Eddy, M., Pielak, R., Chou, J., & Griffin, R. (2010). “Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Influenza A M2: Support for an Allosteric Mechanism of Inhibition.” Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/ja101537p

(2) Cady, S., Schmidt-Rohr, K., Wang, J., Soto, C., DeGrado, W., & Hong, M. (2010). “Structure of the amantadine binding site of influenza M2 proton channels in lipid bilayers.” Nature, 463 (7281), 689-692 DOI: 10.1038/nature08722

(3) Czabotar, P., Martin, S.R., & Hay, A.J. (2004). “Studies of structural changes in the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus by tryptophan fluorescence.” Virus Research, 99 (1), 57-61 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2003.10.004

(4) Jing, X., Ma, C., Ohigashi, Y., Oliveira, F., Jardetzky, T., Pinto, L., & Lamb, R. (2008). “Functional studies indicate amantadine binds to the pore of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (31), 10967-10972 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0804958105 OPEN ACCESS

(5) Ohigashi, Y., Ma, C., Jing, X., Balannick, V., Pinto, L., & Lamb, R. (2009). “An amantadine-sensitive chimeric BM2 ion channel of influenza B virus has implications for the mechanism of drug inhibition.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (44), 18775-18779 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0910584106

(6) Pielak, R., Schnell, J., & Chou, J. (2009). “Mechanism of drug inhibition and drug resistance of influenza A M2 channel.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (18), 7379-7384 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0902548106

(7) Rosenberg, M., & Casarotto, M. (2010). “Coexistence of two adamantane binding sites in the influenza A M2 ion channel.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1002051107

Jun 022009
 
ResearchBlogging.orgVaccination plays such an important role in our seasonal influenza strategy in part because we don’t have many medicines that can be brought to bear on the disease. The neuraminidase inhibitors (specifically Tamiflu) are widely stockpiled, and continue to work for now, but the specter of resistance is already lurking. If these drugs are too widely or too improperly used, there is a good chance that resistance mutations will eventually render these drugs ineffective. Universal drug resistance may already be the fate of the drugs amantadine and rimantadine, built on an adamantane backbone (1). The adamantane drugs inhibit the M2 proton channel from influenza A, a tiny tetrameric protein that equalizes pH between the virus and the endosome of the cell that has swallowed it. This process releases the virus contents so that they can do their damage to the cell, so these medicines can significantly retard the infection process. Or rather, they could, if so many influenza strains didn’t harbor the S31N mutation that almost completely nullifies their effect. If we are to develop new drugs to attack the M2 channel, it would be helpful to know how this mutation causes drug resistance. Over the past few years a great deal of structural evidence has accumulated showing how adamantane drugs work on the older, non-resistant channels. The problem is that the evidence supports two different models of M2 inhibition, and so far it has proven difficult to determine which of them is probably correct.

How the question arose

The controversy is the result of two structures published in Nature early in 2008 (2,3). The first of these is a crystal structure of a tetramer of peptides encompassing the transmembrane (TM) region of the M2 channel reported by the DeGrado group at UPenn, which you can see at right (explore this structure at the PDB, noting that the numbering is off by 21). In the detergent used for crystallization, the peptides form a tetramer with a roughly conical pore, which amantadine (purple in these models) physically occludes, giving rise to the pore-blocking model (PBM). This model is consistent with previous results indicating that a single amantadine molecule is sufficient to inhibit the proton channel. In addition, in this model the drug binding site is adjacent to S31 (blue side chain), which is what we’d expect given that an S31N mutation is responsible for most amantadine resistance. The authors propose, given the position of the S31 side chain, that the mutant asparagines form a hydrogen-bonded network that is too constricted for amantadine to bind. Click on the picture for a larger view.

An alternative model was proposed by Schnell and Chou from Harvard University (3). They produced an NMR structure (left) of a 42 amino-acid peptide from M2 encompassing the TM region and an additional C-terminal helix (explore this structure at the PDB). In their structure, taken at pH 7.5 in detergent micelles, the tetramer forms a roughly cylindrical pore that is blocked by the side chains of the known gating residues W41 and H37 (light green in these models). Their structure shows rimantadine bound at four sites near the base of the helix but not in the pore. Using pH-dependent conformational exchange experiments, Schnell and Chou showed that a decrease in pH caused rapid structural changes in the channel, motions that rimantadine slowed. On the basis of this evidence, they proposed a mechanism in which protonation of the gating histidines destabilizes the packing of the TM helices and allows the conductance of protons. Rimantadine blocks the channel by stabilizing the helices, thus this is a dynamic quenching model (DQM). The position of S31 in this model is also somewhat different than the crystal structure, although these models were made at different pH conditions and so this may represent a difference between the closed and open states of the channel.

The distinction here is important. If Stouffer et al. are correct, then drug development should abandon the adamantane backbone altogether and start with a set of significantly different leads to address the resistance problem. The PBM implies that any molecule large enough to occlude the pore will be too large to fit in there following the S31N mutation that induces amantadine resistance. If the DQM is correct, however, then it is conceivable that further refinements to the adamantane base, or similar molecules, could improve affinity enough to overwhelm the mutational effect.

Unfortunately, neither result is unimpeachable. Although it agrees with a great deal of experimental evidence, the low resolution of the crystal structure means that the electron density called amantadine cannot be assigned unambiguously. It is also curious that a hydrophobic molecule like amantadine would bind tightly in the hydrophilic pore. In addition, the crystal form with amantadine bound contains a mutation, G34A (black side chain), which is near the drug binding site and could conceivably have altered the binding specificity of the protein.

The NMR structure has the advantage that it directly includes distance information in the form of NOEs. However, the authors used 40 mM rimantadine to obtain these results, meaning that there were as many rimantadine molecules in the solution as phosphate buffer molecules. Under these conditions, it is possible that the drug bound to a secondary, low-affinity site. Even if this is what happened, it is strange that the rimantadine never bound to the high-affinity site indicated by the crystal structure.

Both experiments use significantly truncated constructs and highly artificial systems to mimic a membrane environment. The structure of any membrane protein depends in often unexpected ways on the composition of the lipid bilayer in which it is embedded and on the structure of that bilayer. The intense curvature of the micelles may have distorted the structure in the NMR experiment, and possibly inappropriate lipids may have had effects on both structures. We know these considerations are relevant for this system, because Schnell and Chou report that the construct used for the crystal structure would not form stable tetramers in the micelle system. Also, as Chris Miller notes in his commentary on these papers (4), there were questions about both constructs with respect to their proton conductivity. Lacking significant stretches of the protein and placed in these environments, it is possible that both structures deviate from in vivo reality in significant ways.

Because the conditions diverge so much, it is difficult to weigh the mechanisms based on these structures alone. The binding site identified by Schnell and Chou is only at the very end of the construct used by Stouffer et al.. In addition, the inhibited crystal structure comes from a low-pH condition while the NMR structure exclusively represents a high-pH condition. Given these differences in conditions, it is not impossible that both models, in whole or in part, are correct. We must turn to additional experiments and alternative evidence to choose between them, specifically data on the stoichiometry of binding and the effects of mutations.

Binding stoichiometry

The crystal structure shows a single binding site for the drug, while the NMR structure implies four, and this is at odds with existing results that indicate that a single molecule of drug is sufficient to inhibit a single channel. Given the homotetrameric nature of the M2 channel, it is in principle not possible for the NMR experiment to distinguish between a single rimantadine binding event and four. That is, the NMR experiment cannot tell us whether the rimantadine-M2 inhibition occurs with a single binding event or requires four drug molecules to bind. Therefore, to argue that DQM is inconsistent with 1:1 stoichiometry overstates the case somewhat.

It may also be somewhat overstating the case to say that there is only one amantadine binding site on M2. Washing amantadine out of your buffer does not reverse inhibition, in part because of slow kinetics of leaving the binding site and in part because these drugs, being very greasy, preferentially partition into the lipid membranes and are therefore not readily removed from a system when its aqueous phase is replaced. It is difficult to measure a binding constant for the drugs because the equilibria under consideration will be quite complex. The studies often cited on the 1:1 stoichiometry (5,6) use structural and kinetic evidence to get at this question.

Czabotar et al. (5) measured tryptophan fluorescence in M2 as a function of pH and rimantadine concentration. They found that fluorescence from W41 was quenched by decreased pH, but recovered when 1 equivalent rimantadine per tetramer was added. This result implies that structural or dynamic changes caused by histidine protonation are reversed by rimantadine inhibition, but this is so general that it cannot be taken to support either the PBM or DQM.

Wang et al. (6) measured the reduction of surface currents in X. laevis oocytes after addition of various concentrations of amantadine. From these results they are able to construct a Hill plot with a coefficient of 1, showing that binding of amantadine is not cooperative. In further results, Wang et al. find that amantadine inhibits M2 channels slightly better at high pH (when the pore is closed) than at low pH, and that amantadine inhibits proton conductance in either direction (rather than favoring one). Both these outcomes are unexpected for PBM, but can be easily explained by DQM. However, the differences in the binding constants are relatively minor and the linearity of the current-voltage relationship may result from some other idiosyncratic feature of the M2 channel, so these results are not unequivocal.

Neither experiment refutes DQM because they do not measure the number of binding sites, but rather the number of efficacious binding sites. If there are four binding sites, but 95% or more of the inhibitory or structural effect is caused by the first drug molecule bound, then these experiments would be unable to distinguish DQM from PBM. Overall, the evidence on the question of binding stoichiometry does not eliminate the possibility of four binding sites existing, but it does place a requirement on DQM that the inhibitory effect of amantadine on the tetramer result from a single binding event. Because the proposed DQM binding site for rimantidine lies between monomers and is linked to the gating tryptophan, this is not unbelievable. Other evidence from these experiments is equivocal, but can be seen as somewhat more problematic for PBM than DQM.

Functional effects of mutations

A serious problem for DQM is that the mutations known to give M2 resistance to adamantane drugs are all located near the PBM binding site. In particular, S31 is adjacent to the drug in the crystal structure and quite distant in the NMR structure. As Miller notes in his commentary, mutational studies are substantially more difficult to interpret than is typically suggested, so this isn’t absolutely probative. In general, however, one predicts mutations to have short-range rather than long-range effects, so at least some resistance mutations ought to evolve at the binding site. However, many of the residues surrounding the DQM site are almost absolutely conserved, presumably because they are essential to the function of the channel. As a result, it would be very difficult to interpret any studies on point mutants in this area. What would be ideal, however, would be to find a set of mutations that produced a functional protein and abrogated amantadine inhibition.

This is the basis for an interesting experiment conducted by the lab of Robert Lamb and reported last year in PNAS (7). In this case, the authors took advantage of the fact that the M2 protein from influenza B virus is not sensitive to adamantane drugs. They constructed a chimeric protein containing about a dozen residues from influenza A M2 — specifically, the dozen or so residues surrounding the PBM site. If PBM is correct, then we would expect that these residues, which define that site, would impart amantadine susceptibility to the influenza B channel. This is what happens, sort of. For your benefit, I have shamelessly stolen their figure (right), but you can check out this paper yourself because it is open access. In this assay, again involving X. laevis oocytes, the hybrid channel is sensitive to amantadine (bottom trace), but only half as sensitive as the wild-type influenza A channel (second from top). This result suggests that there is important context conferring susceptibility outside the PBM site. However, this could be something as simple as helix orientation, so the result does not necessarily imply that there is an external binding site.

Additionally, the authors made point mutations at residues (L38, D44, and R45) that were presumed to be important in the DQM mechanism or have long-range effects on amantadine binding. None of these mutations appeared to affect amantadine resistance. In contrast, experiments in liposomes reported by the Chou group this May showed that a D44A mutation prevented rimantidine from having an effect (8). This conflict in results is difficult to reconcile, but may result from the different constructs used (the Chou group used a truncated form of M2 while the Lamb group used the full-length protein) or from changes in ion specificity caused by the D44A mutation. It might be of value to repeat these experiments with the alternative construct: truncated in oocytes, full-length in liposomes. Because the D44A mutant does not appear to conduct protons as efficiently as WT, the proposition that the function of this mutant is too deranged to provide trustworthy information should also be considered.

Additional experiments in the Chou paper are meant to address the relationship between the DQM site and the mutations at the PBM site. They show that the S31N mutation prevents rimantidine binding to the remote site, and also that this mutation makes the protein generally more dynamic. From this evidence they propose that this mutation, at least, disrupts amantadine binding by destabilizing the helical packing of the channel and thus interfering with the organization of the lipid-facing pocket.

They also examine an S31A mutation and find that it is not rimantadine-resistant or destabilizing to the packing. This supports their dynamic model in a limited way, because it demonstrates that only certain mutations at the S31 site will generate resistance. It does not cast any doubt on PBM, however, because in that model resistance in the S31N mutant is explained by the idea that its side chain will partially obstruct the pore so that rimantadine will not fit. I do not think it was ever proposed that specific contacts between S31 and the drug stabilize the binding; in fact, the general absence of such contacts strikes me as a concern about PBM.

Chou et al. also examine the effect of rimantadine on the shorter construct used for the crystal studies. They find that the inhibition of this construct is substantially weaker. However, it also conducts protons at a much slower rate in this assay, suggesting that there may be additional serious problems with the function of this construct. It may be that it simply is not appropriate to use this construct for studies in solution or living membranes. That doesn’t necessarily imply that this peptide will give incorrect information in the stabilizing environment of a crystal.

What do we know, and what do we need?

Very little of this evidence unequivocally prefers one model to the other. We know that a single adamantane molecule is sufficient to inhibit M2, and while this is most obviously compatible with PBM it need not be inconsistent with DQM. It is also apparent that various constructs of the M2 channel retain adamantane susceptibility after ablation of the DQM site, either by truncation, mutation, or the construction of a chimeric protein. In all assays, however, the adamantane drugs lose a considerable amount of inhibitory power, so these results are not entirely consistent with PBM either. And, at least in the Chou lab’s assays, interference with the DQM site also reduces adamantane susceptibility and deranges function. Moreover, the NMR data from the Chou lab shows that mutations at PBM site have a long range effect on the DQM site, which mitigates the probative power of the S31N mutation.

How do we address this question? One important step would be to start comparing like to like. We are considering evidence from a plethora of constructs and conditions, and the evidence in conflict is often collected in very divergent experiments. Ideally we would like to have structures of the wild-type channel at low and high pH in a lipid environment that closely mimics the composition and curvature of a mature influenza virion. As this is unlikely in the near term, we must hope for NMR and crystal structures that at least use the same construct, minimally mutated, under similar conditions. NMR studies at low pH would be of value in assessing whether these studies in fact contradict one another. Additionally, it would be useful to make adamantane derivatives labeled with a free radical or other paramagnetic label; this would presumably allow the identification of a binding site at lower drug concentrations in an NMR experiment. Labeling the drug with a metal might also allow its identification in a crystal structure without any need to push the resolution significantly higher. Finally, actual structures of the S31N mutant, positively identifying the disposition of this side chain, would be of great value in judging the question.

Structural experiments can take a great deal of time and careful tuning, a requirement exacerbated by the often-fickle behavior of membrane proteins. As such, additional mutational studies could prove useful. Inverting the chimera experiment of Jing et al. to create a chimeric protein with the upper channel from influenza B and the lower channel from influenza A may be a helpful supplement to the existing experiments. If the C-terminal portion of the channel makes a contribution to adamantane inhibition this chimera will also be rimantidine-sensitive. In addition, new mutations at S31 could help distinguish the possibilities. The PBM supposes that the N31 side chains stick into the pore and form hydrogen bonds, while the DQM supposes that they stick into the interface of the TM helices and destabilize them. An S31L mutant should disrupt the helical packing but not form hydrogen bonds or extend the L31 side chains into the pore. If functional, such a mutant ought to be rimantidine resistant if the DQM is correct, but not if PBM is correct. Assuming the geometry of the longer side chain is wrong for formation of a hydrogen bonding network, an S31Q mutation might be useful as well. Similarly, mutations that increase the size of the L40, I42, or L43 side chains could prevent adamantane binding to the DQM site without degrading the channel’s transport capabilities; the drug sensitivity of such a mutant would be a powerful argument either way. Any experiments of this kind would likely be easier to perform than to interpret, but could provide valuable insight. Obviously, it would also be important to establish that each mutant was competent at transporting protons.

The unspoken assumption of the debate so far is that these mechanisms are mutually exclusive, but there is no particular reason to believe this must be so. The structural experiments definitively show that binding to both sites is at least possible — even if one clings tenaciously to the idea that the density observed in the crystal is not in fact amantadine, that structure at least shows that the PBM site is capable of accommodating the drug. It might therefore be plausible that adamantane drugs inhibit M2 using both mechanisms simultaneously, or that DQM predominates at high pH and PBM at low pH. Redundancy in inhibitory mechanisms may explain the curious features of amantadine inhibition noted by Wang et al., and the inability of experiments specific to a single site to completely account for adamantane inhibition. In addition, the fact that S31N interferes with both mechanisms may explain why it is the primary resistance mutation.

An experiment with the alternate chimera mentioned above could test this possibility. In addition, if the mechanisms switch off in a pH-dependent fashion, then this should be testable with the hybrids: specifically, the A/B M2 used by Jing et al. should have lower susceptibility to adamantane drugs at high pH than at low pH. Similarly, the B/A M2 chimeric protein, if inhibited by amantadine, would be more resistant at low pH.

Doubtless these suggestions are nothing new to the members of the labs working on this perhaps unexpectedly hairy question. Membrane protein structure and function is one of the most difficult experimental subjects in biochemistry, and constitutes a critically important frontier in scientific efforts to improve human health. It is infinitely easier to propose most of these experiments than it is to perform them, and I would be remiss if I did not temper the persistently critical tone of this post with some praise for the efforts of all the scientists involved in this research, and for their commitment to getting the right answer. These papers represent years of work by incredibly talented people using some of mankind’s most advanced scientific techniques. The lack of clarity on the question of adamantane drugs binding to M2, even in the face of this amazing effort, is a testament to the enormous difficulty of researching these critical systems.


1. Deyde, V., Xu, X., Bright, R., Shaw, M., Smith, C., Zhang, Y., Shu, Y., Gubareva, L., Cox, N., & Klimov, A. (2007). Surveillance of Resistance to Adamantanes among Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) Viruses Isolated Worldwide The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196 (2), 249-257 DOI: 10.1086/518936 OPEN ACCESS

2. Stouffer, A., Acharya, R., Salom, D., Levine, A., Di Costanzo, L., Soto, C., Tereshko, V., Nanda, V., Stayrook, S., & DeGrado, W. (2008). Structural basis for the function and inhibition of an influenza virus proton channel Nature, 451 (7178), 596-599 DOI: 10.1038/nature06528

3. Schnell, J., & Chou, J. (2008). Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus Nature, 451 (7178), 591-595 DOI: 10.1038/nature06531

4. Miller, C. (2008). Ion channels: Coughing up flu’s proton channels Nature, 451 (7178), 532-533 DOI: 10.1038/451532a

5. Czabotar, P., Martin, S.R., & Hay, A.J. (2004). Studies of structural changes in the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus by tryptophan fluorescence Virus Research, 99 (1), 57-61 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2003.10.004

6. Wang, C., Takeuchi, K., Pinto, L.H., & Lamb, R. (1993) Ion Channel Activity of the Influenza A Virus M2 Protein: Characterization of the Amantadine Block J. Virol. 67 (9) 5585-5594 Available free from PubMed Central

7. Jing, X., Ma, C., Ohigashi, Y., Oliveira, F., Jardetzky, T., Pinto, L., & Lamb, R. (2008). Functional studies indicate amantadine binds to the pore of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (31), 10967-10972 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0804958105 OPEN ACCESS

8. Pielak, R., Schnell, J., & Chou, J. (2009). Mechanism of drug inhibition and drug resistance of influenza A M2 channel Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (18), 7379-7384 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0902548106

The Scientific Activist and Discovering Biology in a Digital World also have interesting posts on this subject.

Jan 072009
 
ResearchBlogging.orgAntibiotics such as chloramphenicol suppress infections by inhibiting bacteria from making proteins. They achieve this by binding to and blocking the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of the ribosome, a large complex of RNA and protein that performs nearly polypeptide synthesis in living cells. Although PTC-binding antibiotics comprise several different families of compounds, mutations in the ribosome that confer resistance to one family often produce cross-resistance to other families. This is difficult to understand because the PTC itself is highly conserved and not very tolerant of mutations. In an upcoming paper (open access, read along) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of researchers from the Weizman Institute of Science analyze several crystal structures of the ribosome to understand how this cross-resistance arises.

Davidovich et al. mapped nucleotide mutations known to confer resistance to PTC antibiotics onto x-ray crystal structures of the large ribosomal subunit from D. radiodurans in complex with antibiotics. One interesting facet of the resistance mutations became immediately apparent: they were almost all clustered on one side of the antibiotic binding site.

You can see this pretty clearly in Figure 2 panels B&D. Although the antibiotics (large pink surface) are surrounded by nucleotides, most of those that are on the left side (thin tan sticks) do not confer resistance if mutated. Resistance-conferring mutations instead cluster around the “rear wall” of the PTC (to the right). The authors explain that in this region ribosomal functions primarily rely on the sugar-phosphate backbone of the rRNA. Because the backbone elements are the same for all ribonucleotide bases, mutations in this region are more likely to be tolerated without significant loss of function.

Another striking feature of resistance mutations is visible in Figure 2 and quantified in Figure 3A, namely that many of these mutated bases do not contact the antibiotics directly. In particular, mutation of G2032 appears to play a role in conferring resistance to several different antibiotics. Overall, however, it appears that numerous long-range interactions can interfere with antibiotic binding.

The lynchpin of these interactions seems to be U2504, a base that directly contacts the bound antibiotic in most cases. Mutations to U2504 itself do not appear to be well-tolerated, but many of the long-range mutations occur in the layer of bases surrounding it. The authors describe in detail several mechanisms by which the observed mutations might increase the flexibility of U2504, allowing it to adopt positions that could allow continued protein synthesis while reducing the binding of antibiotics. The commonality of interactions with U2504, and the importance of the structural context of the surrounding nucleotides, explains why many mutations can give rise to cross-resistance.

The practical upshot of these findings is that they may serve as a guide for the design of future antibiotics. Since the majority of the drug-resistance mutations lie on the rear wall of the PTC, the effectiveness of these antibiotics may be enhanced by improving their binding to other parts of the site. With further modeling it may also be possible to design antibiotics that can compensate for flexibility at U2504. These findings also remind us that dynamics and long-range interactions can be important to the function of any biomolecule with a folded three-dimensional structure, not just proteins.

C. Davidovich, A. Bashan, A. Yonath (2008). Structural basis for cross-resistance to ribosomal PTC antibiotics Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (52), 20665-20670 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0810826105 OPEN ACCESS

 Posted by at 4:00 AM
Nov 082007
 
I noted in a previous post on the persistence of oseltamivir in the environment that most known mutations conferring oseltamivir resistance also diminished the infectivity of H5N1 influenza. Unfortunately, new research seems to have proven me wrong on that point. The good folks at Effect Measure have a post up about a recent paper from researchers at St. Jude’s indicating that at least some of the mutations that confer resistance to tamiflu preserve neuraminidase activity. Check it out.

For those of you at academic or industrial institutions that have online journal access, read the article:
Yen HL, Ilyushina NA, Salomon R, et al. “Neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant recombinant a/vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza viruses retain their replication efficiency and pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo.” J Vir 2007:81(22); 12418-12426.